Itani, L., Bruneaux, G., Hermant, L., and Schulz, C., "Investigation of the Mixing Process and the Fuel Mass Concentration Fields for a Gasoline Direct-Injection Spray at ECN Spray G Conditions and Variants," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1902, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1902.
Within the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) research frame, the mixing process and the fuel mass concentration fields were investigated at spray G conditions and variants with optical diagnostics. Experiments were conducted in a high-temperature high-pressure constant-volume pre-combustion vessel. The target condition, called “Spray G”, which is representative of gasoline direct-injection engine conditions, uses well-defined ambient (573 K, 6 bar, 3.5 kg/m3, O2-free) and injector conditions (200 bar, eight-hole injector, 0.165 mm orifice diameter). Measurements were also conducted at 6 and 9 kg/m3 for temperatures of 700 and 800 K respectively. Two techniques were used to visualize the jet formation: p-difluorobenzene laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging and high-repetition-rate schlieren visualization. Images from both methods were compared in terms of jet penetration and size. LIF images were also used to calculate the fuel mass concentration fields across the jet for various measurement conditions.