Kidoguchi, Y., Nozaki, J., Hieda, Y., Shimizu, K. et al., "Effect of Improving Spray Development and Evaporation on Emissions from DI Diesel Engines Fueled with Straight Rape-Seed Oil," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1925, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1925.
This study tries to reduce SOF (Soluble Organic Fraction) emissions at low load by improving spray characteristics of rape-seed oil and avoiding wall-impingement of the spray to the piston wall in a real direct-injection diesel engine applying rape-seed oil directly. High swirling air motion and squish flow caused by the piston configurations are taken as measures. Further, flat bottom shape of the piston is applied. Results show that emissions can be improved by the support of air motions. High swirl with toroidal piston is effective to reduce SOF emissions. Re-entrant piston with flat bottom shape offers the best emission performance. Raising gas temperature is also effective to reduce SOF emissions at low load.