Chen, R., Okazumi, R., Nishida, K., and Ogata, Y., "Spray and Flame Behaviors of Ethanol-Gasoline Blend Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1950, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1950.
Different ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, namely the E0 (100% gasoline), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline mixed in volume basis) and E100 (100% ethanol) were injected by a valve-covered-orifice (VCO) hole-type nozzle in a condition simulating the near top dead center (TDC). Two typical injection pressures of 10 and 20MPa were adopted to clarify the spray and flame behaviors. The correlation of the upstream unburned fuel and the flame propagation was analyzed by the high-speed imaging of shadowgraph. Moreover, the effects of ignition timing and location on the flame propagation were discussed based on the imaging of OH* chemiluminescence.