Matsui, J., Koyama, H., Goto, Y., and Kawai, H., "Development of 3.5L V6 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine - ESTEC 2GR-FKS/FXS -," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1972, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1972.
The new 2GR-FKS / FXS engines were developed to achieve stringent fuel economy and emission targets and respond to recent innovations in the field. The major parts of the 2GR-FKS/FXS engines were re-designed based on the well-received dynamic performance and fuel economy aspects of the 2GR-FE engine. The aims of this development were as follows. 1Best-in-class power performance2Environmental performance that maximizes thermal efficiency and complies with fuel economy and emission regulations in each country by a wide margin3Engine response typical of V6 engines through drastic weight reduction of moving partsTo achieve these conflicting aims, the developed engines use a modified version of the D-4S fuel injection system, which enables selective use of direct and port injection, in addition to advanced technologies such as variable valve technology (VVT) with a mid-position lock system and an exhaust port cooling system.