Bogarra-Macias, M., Herreros-Arellano, J., Tsolakis, A., York, A. et al., "Reformate Exhaust Gas Recirculation (REGR) Effect on Particulate Matter (PM), Soot Oxidation and Three Way Catalyst (TWC) Performance in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(1):305-314, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2019.
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have become very attractive in transportation due to several benefits over preceding engine technologies. However, GDI engines are associated with higher levels of particulate matter (PM) emissions, which is a major concern for human health.The aim of this work is to broaden the understanding of the effect of hydrogen combustion and the influence of the three way catalytic converter (TWC) on PM emission characteristics. The presence of hydrogen in GDI engines has been reported to reduce fuel consumption and improve the combustion process, making it possible to induce higher rates of EGR. A prototype exhaust fuel reformer build for on-board vehicle hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) production has been integrated within the engine operation and studied in this work. It is concluded that benefits on engine out soot emissions from the combustion of the reformate-gas are more noticeable in the engine operation conditions with a higher concentration of soot particulates.