Okada, T., Teramoto, S., and Furuta, N., "New Generation Model of Linear Oxygen Sensor," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2020, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2020.
In 1991, linear O2 sensors for lean-burn control were introduced in production vehicles for the first time in the world. Since then, the linear O2 sensors have been used mainly for the precise λ control. Recently requirements for Oxygen sensors have become increasingly stringent in the trends of tighter vehicle EM control requirements and lower fuel consumption. In response to these trends, NGK SPARK PLUG CO., LTD. has developed a new generation linear O2 sensor, which has a high water toughness and requires less power consumption.