Gultepe, I., Pavolonis, M., Zhou, B., Ware, R. et al., "Freezing Fog and Drizzle Observations," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2113, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2113.
Fog and drizzle observations collected during the arctic weather and SAR (Search and Rescue) operations (SAAWSO) project at sub-freezing temperatures (T) are analyzed in this study to identify icing conditions, improve ground-based in-situ and remote sensing observations, and develop icing parameterizations for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The SAAWSO project took place during the 2012-2013 winter conditions that occurred over St. John's, NFL, Canada. Observations were obtained by a Droplet Measuring Technologies Fog Measuring Device (FMD), a ground cloud imaging probe (GCIP), a Radiometrics Profiling Microwave Radiometer (PMWR), a Rosemount icing detector, a laser disdrometer, and surface meteorological sensors. Precipitation, wind, and radiation data were also collected. Results suggest that observations obtained from integrated in-situ and remote sensors can be used to characterize icing conditions.