Williams, E., Donovan, M., Smalley, D., Hallowell, R. et al., "Aircraft In Situ Validation of Hydrometeors and Icing Conditions Inferred by Ground-based NEXRAD Polarimetric Radar," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2152, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2152.
MIT Lincoln Laboratory is tasked by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to investigate the use of the NEXRAD polarimetric radars* for the remote sensing of icing conditions hazardous to aircraft. A critical aspect of the investigation concerns validation that has relied upon commercial airline icing pilot reports and a dedicated campaign of in situ flights in winter storms. During the month of February in 2012 and 2013, the Convair-580 aircraft operated by the National Research Council of Canada was used for in situ validation of snowstorm characteristics under simultaneous observation by NEXRAD radars in Cleveland, Ohio and Buffalo, New York. The most anisotropic and easily distinguished winter targets to dual pol radar are ice crystals. Accordingly, laboratory diffusion chamber measurements in a tightly-controlled parameter space of temperature and humidity provide the linkage between shape and the expectation for the presence/absence of water saturation conditions necessary for icing hazard in situ. In agreement with the laboratory measurements pertaining to dendritic and hexagonal flat plate crystals, the aircraft measurements have verified the presence of supercooled water in mainly low concentrations coincident with regions showing layered anomalies of positive differential reflectivity (ZDR) by ground-based radar, otherwise known as +ZDR ‘bright bands’. Extreme values of ZDR (up to +8 dB) have also been found to be coincident with hexagonal flat plate crystals and intermittent supercooled water, also consistent with laboratory measurements.The icing conditions found with the anisotropic description are considered non-classical (condensation/collision-coalescence) and require the ascent of air and availability of ice nuclei. A modest ascent rate (<1 m/s) is needed for preservation of the anisotropic ice crystal shapes, making them identifiable to dual-pol radar. In the other limit of strong ascent (several m/s and greater), a vigorous riming process is present leading to graupel and hail, and with attendant radar reflectivity of 30 dBZ and greater. These rimed hydrometeors are also readily verified by dual pol hydrometeor classification and in situ aircraft measurements. For the intermediate level of ascent speed, snow can become rimed, diluting its anisotropy, and presents a challenge to unambiguous detection of an icing condition by dual pol radar. This challenge is under current study.