Bartkus, T., Struk, P., and Tsao, J., "Development of a Coupled Air and Particle Thermal Model for Engine Icing Test Facilities," SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 8(1):15-32, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2155.
This paper describes a numerical model that simulates the thermal interaction between ice particles, water droplets, and the flowing air applicable during icing wind tunnel tests where there is significant phase-change of the cloud. It has been previously observed that test conditions, most notably temperature and humidity, change when the icing cloud is activated. It is hypothesized that the ice particles and water droplets thermally interact with the flowing air causing the air temperature and humidity to change by the time it reaches the test section. Unlike previous models where the air and particles are uncoupled, this model attempts to explain the observed changes in test conditions by coupling the conservation of mass and energy equations. The model is compared to measurements taken during wind tunnel tests simulating ice-crystal and mixed-phase icing that relate to ice accretions within turbofan engines. The model simulates trends that were experimentally observed, but does not fully explain the measured values. Some possible explanations for this discrepancy are offered. This model, written in MATLAB, is based on fundamental conservation laws and empirical correlations.