Szilder, K. and Lozowski, E., "Progress towards a 3D Numerical Simulation of Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing using the Morphogenetic Approach," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2162, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2162.
We have developed an original, three-dimensional icing modelling capability, called the “morphogenetic” approach, based on a discrete formulation and simulation of ice formation physics. Morphogenetic icing modelling improves on existing ice accretion models, in that it is capable of predicting simultaneous rime and glaze ice accretions and ice accretions with variable density and complex geometries. The objective of this paper is to show preliminary results of simulating complex three-dimensional features such as lobster tails and rime feathers forming on a swept wing. The results are encouraging. They show that the morphogenetic approach can predict realistically both the overall size and detailed structure of the ice accretion forming on a swept wing. Under cold ambient conditions, when drops freeze instantly upon impingement, the numerical ice structure has voids, which reduce its density. At warmer air temperatures, when drops do not freeze on impingement, larger cavities form, due to the shadowing process, along with the development of morphological features called lobster tails. Ice feathers also appear. As far as we know, no other numerical model can simulate these complex, three-dimensional ice structures that form on a swept wing.