Palsule, A., Budama, A., and Somasundaraeswer, N., "Development of Alternate Split Cat-Con - Muffler Configuration Solution for Front Engine Low Floor Bus," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2311, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2311.
Development of split Catalytic Converter (Cat-Con)-Muffler system was done to be used in front engine low floor (FELF) Bus from perspective of cost saving, modularity and reduction in complexity. This system is developed as an alternate to an existing solution of integrated Cat-Con and muffler.The paper describes the development of a split Cat-Con and muffler exhaust system for a FELF Bus, so as to meet cost and time considerations. The development also had to achieve a feasible solution, which could be installed within the packaging volume of the existing configuration of FELF while meeting the regulatory requirements  for Pass by noise (PBN), and at the same time conforming to backpressure limits set for optimum engine performance. Multiple design - prototypes - test iterations were carried out to meet the PBN and back pressure target for FELF Bus.The final solution was developed which achieved both the requirements within the specified space constraints. Solution is based on configuration used in Front Engine Semi Low Floor (FESLF) Bus where a split Cat-Con configuration was already used as it had higher scope for volume where PBN and back pressure conflict didn't rise.