Jain, S., Roy, S., Gupta, D., Kumar, V. et al., "Study on Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Techniques for Application in V/STOL Aircrafts," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2423, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2423.
The art and science of thrust vectoring technology has seen a gradual shift towards fluidic thrust vectoring techniques owing to the potential they have to greatly influence the aircraft propulsion systems. The prime motive of developing a fluidic thrust vectoring system has been to reduce the weight of the mechanical thrust vectoring system and to further simplify the configuration. Aircrafts using vectored thrust rely to a lesser extent on aerodynamic control surfaces such as ailerons or elevator to perform various maneuvers and turns than conventional-engine aircrafts and thus have a greater advantage in combat situations. Fluidic thrust vectoring systems manipulate the primary exhaust flow with a secondary air stream which is typically bled from the engine compressor or fan. This causes the compressor operating curve to shift from the optimum condition, allowing the optimization of engine performance. These systems make both pitch and yaw vectoring possible. This paper elucidates the research efforts which have been made to develop multifunctional nozzles employing fluidic thrust vectoring techniques, such as, co-flow, counter-flow, shock vector control, throat skewing and synthetic jet actuators and also makes a comparison of the intrinsic features of each method. It also makes an overview of how fluidic thrust vectoring has been utilized in the development of V/STOL aircrafts over the years and how it can be integrated with the next generation of fighter and civilian aircraft platforms.