This paper presents the conceptual design of a new low-cost measurement system for the determination of pollutant concentrations associated with aircraft operations. The proposed system employs Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and passive electro-optics equipment installed in two non-collocated components. The source component consists of a tuneable small-size and low-cost/weight LIDAR emitter, which can be installed either on airborne or ground-based autonomous vehicles, or in fixed surface installations. The sensor component includes a target surface calibrated for reflectance and passive electro-optics equipment calibrated for radiance, both installed on an adjustable support. The proposed bistatic system determines the column-averaged molecular and aerosol pollutant concentrations along the LIDAR beam by measuring the cumulative absorption and scattering phenomena along the optical slant range. The molecular column densities are measured by means of Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL), which exploits the known molecular vibration processes for non-ambiguous species detection. Aerosol concentrations such as particulate and soot are determined by means of knowledge-based inversion with regularization. The laboratory calibration of the system components is also discussed. Previously published uncertainty analysis results highlighted the positive qualities of the proposed measurement system even in degraded meteorological conditions, making the proposed bistatic LIDAR a viable alternative to other systems currently employed.