Haworth, P., Peterson, D., and Hayes, C., "Integrated Ball-Screw Based Upset Process for Index Head Rivets Used in Wing Panel Assembly," SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 8(1):97-103, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2491.
A new high speed forming process for fatigue rated index head rivets used in wing panel assembly using ball-screw based servo squeeze actuation has been developed. The new process is achieved using a combination of force and position control and is capable of forming to 40,000 lbs at rates of up to 200,000 lbs/second whilst holding the part location to within +/− 10 thousandths of an inch.Multi-axis riveting machines often have positioning axes that are also used for fastener upset. It is often the case that while a CNC is used for positioning control, another secondary controller is used to perform the fastener upset. In the new process, it has been possible to combine the control of the upset process with the machine CNC, thus eliminating any separate controllers. The fastener upset force profile is controlled throughout the forming of the rivet by using a closed loop force control system that has a load cell mounted directly behind the stringer side forming tool.Panel assembly where the components are not pre-tacked is referred to as a ‘one-up’ process. This process requires that aircraft parts be rigidly and precisely fixtured, and that the fastening processes do not result in excessive part motion. The recently developed riveting process uses a separate position control loop and a position sensor to hold the location of the panel during rivet squeeze to within +/− 0.010″.