Thorell, N., Motahari, N., and Komerath, N., "Narrow-Band Excitation of Vortex Flows," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2572, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2572.
At high angles of attack, the flow over a swept wing generates counter-rotating vortical features. These features can amplify into a nearly sinusoidal fluctuation of velocity components. The result is excitation of twin-fin buffeting, driven at clearly predictable frequencies, or at nearby lock-in frequencies of the fin structure. This is distinct from the traditional model of fin buffeting as a structural resonant response to broadband, large-amplitude excitation from vortex core bursting. Hot-film anemometry was conducted ahead of the vertical fins of a 1:48 scale model of the F-35B aircraft, in the angle of attack range between 18 and 30 degrees. Auto spectral density functions from these data showed a sharp spectral peak in the flow ahead of the fins for angles of attack between 20 and 28 degrees. Small fences placed on the top surface of the wing eliminated the spectral peak, leaving only a broadband turbulent spectrum. Spectra obtained at small yaw angles showed the same phenomeon. The paper sets these measurements in the context of prior work on the generation of Gortler vortices by the interaction of a conical vortex flow with a solid surface. Measurements over wings of several geometries were correlated to develop predictive relations based on wing sweep, flow speed, geometric scale and angle of attack.