Badain, N., Reinhart, T., Cooper, C., MacIsaac, J. et al., "Heavy-Duty Vehicle Fuel Saving Technology Analysis to Support Phase 2 Regulations," SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 8(2):419-432, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2775.
This paper presents the fuel consumption results of engine and vehicle simulation modeling for a wide variety of individual technologies and technology packages applied to a long haul heavy duty vehicle. Based on the simulation modeling, up to 11% in fuel savings is possible using commercially available and emerging technologies applied to a 15L DD15 engine alone. The predicted fuel savings are up to 17% in a Kenworth T700 tractor-trailer unit equipped with a range of vehicle technologies, but using the baseline DD15 diesel engine. A combination of the most aggressive engine and vehicle technologies can provide savings of up to 29%, averaged over a range of drive cycles. Over 30% fuel savings were found with the most aggressive combination on a simulated long haul duty cycle. Note that not all of these technologies may prove to be cost-effective. The fuel savings benefits for individual technologies vary widely depending on the drive cycles and payload.