AL-Refai, A., Rawashdeh, O., and Abousleiman, R., "An Experimental Survey of Li-Ion Battery Charging Methods," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 5(1):23-29, 2016, doi:10.4271/2015-01-9145.
Lithium-Ion batteries are the standard portable power solution to many consumers and industrial applications. These batteries are commonly used in laptop computers, heavy duty devices, unmanned vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicles, cell phones, and many other applications. Charging these batteries is a delicate process because it depends on numerous factors such as temperature, cell capacity, and, most importantly, the power and energy limits of the battery cells. Charging capacity, charging time and battery pack temperature variations are highly dependent on the charging method used. These three factors can be of special importance in applications with strict charging time requirements or with limited thermal management capabilities. In this paper, three common charging methods are experimentally studied and analyzed. Constant-current constant-voltage, the time pulsed charging method, and the multistage constant current charging methods were considered. Charge capacity, charge time and temperature variations vary based on the selected charging method. These variations are compared and contrasted. The presented results help engineers to better choose a more suitable charging method based on the design requirements and the system constraints that they are facing.