Cavina, N., Borelli, A., Calogero, L., Cevolani, R. et al., "Turbocharger Control-Oriented Modeling: Twin-Entry Turbine Issues and Possible Solutions," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(5):2120-2132, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-24-2427.
The paper presents possible solutions for developing fast and reliable turbocharger models, to be used mainly for control applications. This issue is of particular interest today for SI engines since, due to the search for consistent CO2 reduction, extreme downsizing concepts require highly boosted air charge solutions to compensate for power and torque de-rating. For engines presenting at least four in-line cylinders, twin-entry turbines offer the ability of maximizing the overall energy conversion efficiency, and therefore such solutions are actually widely adopted.This work presents a critical review of the most promising (and recent) modeling approaches for automotive turbochargers, highlighting the main open issues especially in the field of turbine models, and proposing possible improvements. The main original contribution is then on solving specific issues related to the twin-entry turbine, to develop a control-oriented model able to predict the machine behavior under all possible admission conditions.The results of this study have been applied to a V8 high-performance GDI engine with twin-entry turbochargers. Experimental data are shown throughout the paper, to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach.