Khapane, P., Ganeshwade, U., and Carvalho, K., "State of the Art Water Wading Simulation Method to Design Under-Body Components," SAE Technical Paper 2015-26-0188, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-26-0188.
Vehicle water wading capability refers to vehicle functional part integrity (e.g. engine under-tray, bumper cover, plastic sill cover etc.) when travelling through water. Wade testing involves vehicles being driven through different depths of water at various speeds. The test is repeated and under-body functional parts are inspected afterwards for damage. Lack of CAE capability for wading equates to late detection of failure modes which inevitably leads to expensive design change, and potentially affects program timing.It is thus of paramount importance to have a CAE capability in this area to give design loads to start with. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to model a vehicle travelling through water at various speeds. A non-classical CFD approach was deemed necessary to model this. To validate the method, experimental testing with a simplified block was done and then verified with CFD modeling. The simple rectangular block at two different speeds and three immersion depths in water was utilized for the purpose. As a next step a full vehicle test was conducted and was used to validate the simulation method. Fluid structure interaction is also explored.