Ratnak, S., Kusaka, J., Daisho, Y., Yoshimura, K. et al., "Experiments and Simulations of a Lean-Boost Spark Ignition Engine for Thermal Efficiency Improvement," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(1):379-396, 2016.
Primary work is to investigate premixed laminar flame propagation in a constant volume chamber of iso-octane/air combustion. Experimental and numerical results are investigated by comparing flame front displacements under lean to rich conditions. As the laminar flame depends on equivalence ratio, temperature, and pressure conditions, it is a main property for chemical reaction mechanism validation. Firstly, one-dimensional laminar flame burning velocities are predicted in order to validate a reduced chemical reaction mechanism. A set of laminar burning velocities with pressure, temperature, and mixture equivalence ratio dependences are combined into a 3D-CFD calculation to compare the predicted flame front displacements with that of experiments. It is found that the reaction mechanism is well validated under the coupled 1D-3D combustion calculations. Next, lean experiments are operated in a SI engine by boosting intake pressure to maintain high efficiency without output power penalty. The peak indicated thermal efficiency are finally achieved under λ=1.3 with intake manifold absolute pressure 150 kPa in experiment. Data of in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release from the 3D-CFD simulations combined with the validated chemical reaction mechanism are reproduced. NOx emissions from experiment and simulation are also in good agreements under the lean-boost combustion. Further thermal efficiency improvements of the lean-boost SI engine are investigated numerically by using dilution rate, high induced in-cylinder flow, and high knock resistant fuel. The peak indicated thermal efficiency and load of the SI engine is achieved. In addition, methods to prevent knock for high efficiency spark ignition engine are also discussed.