Gomes, C., da Costa, R., Franco, R., Guzzo, M. et al., "Comparative Analysis of Atomization Microscopic Characteristics of Gasoline and Ethanol in a GDI injector," SAE Technical Paper 2015-36-0299, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-36-0299.
This study involves the comparison of atomization characteristics of gasoline and ethanol produced by a single-hole gasoline direct injection (GDI) injector. Experiments were performed for the fuel spray characterization, such as: measuring the injected fuel mass flow rate, the droplet velocity and the droplet diameter of atomized fuel as a function of injection pressure. In the injected fuel mass flow rate measurements, an experimental apparatus was used consisting of a nitrogen cylinder, a source of generating pulses, a fuel tank as a pressure vessel and a precision weighing scale. To measure the fuel droplet velocity and droplet diameter, were used the known optical techniques: Laser Doppler Anemometry and Phase Doppler Anemometry (LDA/PDA), respectively. Thus, the performance of fuels can be compared. The average droplet velocity, droplet diameter and characteristic diameter, Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), were evaluated and analyzed due to the injection pressure.