de Oliveira Alvarenga Coelho, R., Schor, R., Florentino, R., Valle, R. et al., "Cold Flow Characterization of an Internal Combustion Engine of 3 cylinders Using Computer Simulation," SAE Technical Paper 2015-36-0455, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-36-0455.
In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were employed to a qualitatively and quantitatively study in the behavior of the cold flow in a turbocharged three cylinder spark ignition engine. Dynamic flow experimental characterization was made for low and high engine rotation. One-dimensional modeling software GT-Power was used to calculate the flow pattern generated within the engine cylinder and the results were used as boundary and initialization condition in the CFD model. From the results of the commercial code, volumetric efficiency, in-cylinder pressure and mass are calculated for evaluating the flow development through the four engine strokes, during 4 complete cycles. The CFD model was used as a less expensive alternative to make a deeper study of the flow field.