De Rosa, M., Douglas, R., and Glover, S., "Numerical Analysis on a Dual-Loop Waste Heat Recovery System Coupled with an ORC for Vehicle Applications," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0205, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0205.
The internal combustion (IC) engines exploits only about 30% of the chemical energy ejected through combustion, whereas the remaining part is rejected by means of cooling system and exhausted gas. Nowadays, a major global concern is finding sustainable solutions for better fuel economy which in turn results in a decrease of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) is one of the most promising techniques to increase the overall efficiency of a vehicle system, allowing the recovery of the heat rejected by the exhaust and cooling systems. In this context, Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) are widely recognized as a potential technology to exploit the heat rejected by engines to produce electricity. The aim of the present paper is to investigate a WHR system, designed to collect both coolant and exhausted gas heats, coupled with an ORC cycle for vehicle applications. In particular, a coolant heat exchanger (CLT) allows the heat exchange between the water coolant and the ORC working fluid, whereas the exhausted gas heat is recovered by using a secondary circuit with diathermic oil. By using an in-house numerical model, a wide range of working conditions and ORC design parameters are investigated. In particular, the analyses are focused on the regenerator location inside the ORC circuits. Five organic fluids, working in both subcritical and supercritical conditions, have been selected in order to detect the most suitable configuration in terms of energy and exergy efficiencies.