Feng, L. and Hrnjak, P., "Experimental Study of an Air Conditioning-Heat Pump System for Electric Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0257, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0257.
This paper presents the experimentally obtained performance characteristics of an air conditioning-heat pump system that uses heat exchangers from a commercially available Nissan Leaf EV. It was found that refrigerant charge needed for cooling operation was larger than that for heating function with the test setup. The effects of: a). indoor air flow rate, b). outdoor air flow rate, and c). compressor speed on heating capacity and energy efficiency were explored and presented. Appropriate opening size of expansion valve that controlled subcooling for better energy efficiency was discussed and results were presented. Expansion valve opening size also strongly affected charge migration. Warm-up tests at different ambient conditions showed the necessity of a secondary heater to be reserved for very low ambient temperature.