Feng, L. and Hrnjak, P., "Modeling of a Reversible Air Conditioning-Heat Pump System for Electric Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 9(1):68-74, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0261.
This paper presents a simulation model for a reversible air conditioning and heat pump system for electric vehicles. The system contains a variable speed compressor, three microchannel heat exchangers, an accumulator, and two electronic expansion valves. Heat exchangers are solved by discretizing into cells. Compressor and accumulator models are developed by fitting data with physical insights. Expansion valves are modeled by isenthalpic processes. System performance is calculated by connecting all parts in the same way as the physical system and solved iteratively. The model is reasonably validated against experimental data from a separate experimental study. Future improvement is needed to take into account maldistribution in outdoor heat exchanger working as an evaporator in HP mode. Charge retention in components also requires further study.