Wang, B., Barber, G., He, M., Sun, X. et al., "Study of Ausferrite Transformation Kinetics for Austempered Ductile Irons with and without Ni," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0421, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0421.
This research studies the transformation kinetics of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with and without nickel as the main alloying element. ADI has improved mechanical properties compared to ductile iron due to its ausferrite microstructure. Not only can austempered ductile iron be produced with high strength, high toughness and high wear resistance, the ductility of ADI can also be increased due to high carbon content austenite. Many factors influence the transformation of phases in ADI. In the present work, the addition of nickel was investigated based on transformation kinetics and metallography observation. The transformation fractions were determined by Rockwell hardness variations of ADI specimens. The calculation of transformation kinetics and activation energy using the “Avrami Equation” and “Arrhenius Equation” is done to describe effects of nickel alloy for phase reactions. The presence of nickel as an alloying element in ADI produces a significant effect on transformation kinetics. Addition of nickel increases the transformation percentage for ausferrite formation and less activation energy needs to be added to induce this reaction.