Metz, J., Zhang, X., and Yu, X., "The Effect of Loading Rate on Rubber Bushing Push-Out Testing of Front Lower Control Arms," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0430, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0430.
The Front Lower Control Arm (FLCA) is a key part of the automotive suspension for performance and safety. Many FLCA designs attach to the front sub-frame using rubber handling and riding bushings, which determine the vehicle dynamics and comfort. In this paper, a design for a ride bushing using a metal pin structure is discussed. The inner portion of the ride bushing is a hollow metal collar with a layer of rubber, and the FLCA pin structure is pressed into the rubber. For safety requirements, the bushings must meet a pin push-in and push-out force requirement. During the development of the bushing design, different test groups conducted tests to determine if manufactured parts meet the push-out force specification. Each group tested at a different load rate and generated different maximum push out force values. The push-in/out speed was found to have a strong influence on the generated maximum load. A non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) model was setup to correlate to the test, and the coefficient of friction between the metal pin and viscoelastic rubber material was investigated at different loading rates in the simulation.