Lee, S., Schenk, C., and McDonald, J., "Air Flow Optimization and Calibration in High-Compression-Ratio Naturally Aspirated SI Engines with Cooled-EGR," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0565, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0565.
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) “Midterm Evaluation of Light-duty Vehicle Standards for Model Years 2022-2025 ”, the U.S. EPA is evaluating engines and assessing the effectiveness of future engine technologies for reducing CO2 emissions. Such assessments often require significant development time and resources in order to optimize intake and exhaust cam variable valve timing (VVT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow rates, and compression ratio (CR) changes. Mazda SkyActiv-G spark-ignition (SI) engines were selected by EPA for an internal engine development program based upon their high geometric compression ratio (14:1 in Europe and Japan, 13:1 in North America) and their use of a flexible valve train configuration with electro-mechanical phasing control on the intake camshaft. A one-dimensional GT-Power engine model was calibrated and validated using detailed engine dynamometer test data  from 2.0L and 2.5L versions of the SkyActiv-G engine. The calibrated GTPower model and a Mathworks Model-Based Calibration (MBC) tool box are being used by EPA to explore calibration and control development of intake and exhaust cam phasing, and cooled EGR flow rates to reduce CO2 and improve brake thermal efficiency.