Bahiraei, F., Fartaj, A., and Nazri, G., "Numerical Investigation of Active and Passive Cooling Systems of a Lithium-Ion Battery Module for Electric Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0655, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0655.
In this work, a pseudo three-dimensional coupled thermal-electrochemical model is established to estimate the heat generation and temperature profiles of a lithium ion battery as functions of the state of the discharge. Then, this model is used to investigate the effectiveness of active and passive thermal management systems. The active cooling system utilizes cooling plate and water as the working fluid while the passive cooling system incorporates a phase change material (PCM). The thermal effects of coolant flow rate examined using a computational fluid dynamics model. In the passive cooling system, Paraffin wax used as a heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise. The effect of module size and battery spacing is studied to find the optimal weight of PCM required. The results show that although the active cooling system has the capability to reduce the peak temperatures, it leads to a large temperature difference over the battery module. On the other hand, the PCM cooling significantly reduces the battery temperature rise and keeps desirable temperature uniformity across the module.