Mayer, M., Hofmann, P., Geringer, B., Williams, J. et al., "Influence of Different Fuel Properties and Gasoline - Ethanol Blends on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(2):841-848, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0719.
In recent years a new combustion phenomenon called Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) occurred, which is the most important limiting factor to exploit further downsizing potential due to the associated peak pressures and thus the huge damage potential. In the past there were already several triggers for pre-ignitions identified, whereat engine oil seems to have an important influence. Other studies have reported that detached oil droplets from the piston crevice volume lead to auto-ignition prior to spark ignition. However, wall wetting and subsequently oil dilution and changes in the oil properties by impinging fuel on the cylinder wall seem to have a significant influence in terms of accumulation and detachment of oil-fuel droplets in the combustion chamber. For this reason, the influence of test fuels with different volatility were investigated in order to verify their influence on wall wetting, detachment and pre-ignition tendency. During these investigations also different ethanol fuels were investigated to analyse the influence of various alcohol blends on pre-ignitions.