Okamoto, T. and Uchida, N., "New Concept for Overcoming the Trade-Off between Thermal Efficiency, Each Loss and Exhaust Emissions in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(2):859-867, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0729.
To overcome the trade-offs of thermal efficiency with energy loss and exhaust emissions typical of conventional diesel engines, a new diffusion-combustion-based concept with multiple fuel injectors has been developed. This engine employs neither low temperature combustion nor homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. One injector was mounted vertically at the cylinder center like in a conventional direct injection diesel engine, and two additional injectors were slant-mounted at the piston cavity circumference. The sprays from the side injectors were directed along the swirl direction to prevent both spray interference and spray impingement on the cavity wall, while improving air utilization near the center of the cavity. Results obtained with a heavy-duty single cylinder engine equipped with multiple injectors indicated that it was possible to achieve the desired heat release rate profile by independent control of injection timing and duration (fuel injection pressure was kept in constant) for each fuel injector. Furthermore, smoke emissions were reduced by improved in-cylinder air utilization, which was possible through a different air-fuel mixture formation process than that found in conventional single-injector diesel engines. Results showed reduced friction loss, heat loss and NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions, while maintaining indicated thermal efficiency by suppressing the peak cylinder pressure, bulk average temperature, and spray flame impingement to the cavity wall. Additionally, a simultaneous reduction in smoke and NOx emissions was achieved, without any deterioration in CO (carbon monoxide) and THC (total hydrocarbon) emissions, even compared with conventional diesel combustion. “CONVERGE” three-dimensional numerical simulation results also suggested that rapid homogenization of local equivalence ratio by improved mixture formation could result in the simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx emissions, even with EGR.