Chung, J., Kim, N., Choi, H., and Min, K., "Study on the Effect of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emission Characteristics under Cold Start Using In-cylinder Visualization," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0822, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0822.
Due to the direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber, particulate emission is a challenge in DISI engines. Specifically, a significant amount of particulate emission is produced under the cold start condition. In this research, the main interest was to investigate particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition because it is one of the significant particulate-emissionproducing stages under the cold start condition.A single-cylinder optically accessible engine was used to investigate the effect of injection strategies on particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition. The split injection strategy was applied during intake stroke with various injection pressures and injection timings. Using luminosity analysis of the soot radiation during combustion, the particulate formation characteristics of each injection strategy were studied. Moreover, the factors that affect PM formation were analyzed via fuel injection visualization. The experimental results showed that the retardation of injection timing and the increasing of split number and injection pressure led to decreased flame luminosity, which can be interpreted as a reduced amount of particulate formation.