Nomura, T., Sato, S., Takahashi, J., and Ichiyanagi, M., "Development of Gasoline Injector Cleaner for Port Fuel Injection and Direct Injection," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0830, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0830.
Port fuel injection (PFI) injector and direct fuel injection (DI) injector clogging from deposits caused by poor fuel quality, is a concern in emerging countries. Then DI injector deposits are sometimes cleaned by injector cleaners in such situation. However deposit cleaners for PFI injectors have not been developed, because of the lack of research of PFI injector deposits. Through chemical analysis, this study showed them to be water-soluble deposits. Subsequently success was achieved in developing a new gasoline injector cleaner applicable to injector deposits in both types of injectors, through optimization of a surface active agent.