Yu, W., Yang, W., Mohan, B., Tay, K. et al., "Numerical and Experimental Study on Internal Nozzle Flow and Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of a Kind of Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) - Kerosene," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0839, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0839.
In this study, the internal nozzle flow and macroscopic spray characteristics of a kind of wide distillation fuel (WDF) - kerosene were investigated both with numerical and experimental approaches. Simulation results indicate that compared with diesel fuel, kerosene cavitates more due to higher turbulent kinetic energy as a result of lower viscosity. The results from experiment indicate that under lower charge density, the spray penetration for kerosene is obviously shorter than that for diesel, especially for the lower injection pressure. This is because lower fuel viscosity results in a reduction in the size of the spray droplets, leading to lower momentum. However the spray angle of kerosene is larger compared with diesel due to stronger turbulence in the nozzle flow caused by increased cavitation for kerosene, which also accords well with the simulation results.