Lacey, J., Poursadegh, F., Brear, M., Petersen, P. et al., "Optical Characterization of Propane at Representative Spark Ignition, Gasoline Direct Injection Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0842, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0842.
The focus of internal combustion (IC) engine research is the improvement of fuel economy and the reduction of the tailpipe emissions of CO2 and other regulated pollutants. Promising solutions to this challenge include the use of both direct-injection (DI) and alternative fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).This study uses Mie-scattering and schlieren imaging to resolve the liquid and vapor phases of propane and iso-octane, which serve as surrogates for LPG and gasoline respectively. These fuels are imaged in a constant volume chamber at conditions that are relevant to both naturally aspirated and boosted, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. It is observed that propane and iso-octane have different spray behaviors across these conditions. Iso-octane is subject to conventional spray breakup and evaporation in nearly all cases, while propane is heavily flash-boiling throughout the GDI operating map. This severe flashing behavior has major implications for the design and calibration of LPG DI injection systems and engines.