Lockett, R., Jeshani, M., Makri, K., and Price, R., "An Optical Characterization of Atomization in Non-Evaporating Diesel Sprays," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0865, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0865.
High-speed planar laser Mie scattering and Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) were employed for the determination of Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distribution in non-evaporating diesel sprays. The effect of rail pressure, distillation profile, and consequent fuel viscosity on the drop size distribution developing during primary and secondary atomization was investigated. Samples of conventional crude-oil derived middle-distillate diesel and light distillate kerosene were delivered into an optically accessible mini-sac injector, using a customized high-pressure common rail diesel fuel injection system. Two optical channels were employed to capture images of elastic Mie and inelastic LIF scattering simultaneously on a high-speed video camera at 10 kHz. Results are presented for sprays obtained at maximum needle lift during the injection. These reveal that the emergent sprays exhibit axial asymmetry and vorticity. An increase in the rail pressure was observed to lead to finer atomization, with larger droplets observable in the neighbourhood of the central axis of the spray, decreasing with radius towards the spray boundaries. Finally, the light kerosene was observed to produce smaller droplets (as measured by Sauter mean diameter), relative to the conventional diesel, suggesting a correlation between distillation profile and viscosity, and mean spray droplet size.