Hakim, L., Lacaze, G., and Oefelein, J., "Large Eddy Simulation of Autoignition Transients in a Model Diesel Injector Configuration," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 9(1):165-176, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0872.
Developing an improved understanding of transient mixing and combustion processes inherent in diesel injection is an important element in the design of advanced engines. This paper provides a detailed analysis of these processes using an idealized benchmark configuration designed to facilitate precise comparisons between different models and numerical methods. The computational domain is similar to the Engine Combustion Network (www.sandia.gov/ECN) Spray-A injector with n-dodecane as the fuel. Quantified idealizations are made in the treatment of boundary conditions to eliminate ambiguities and unknowns associated with the actual injector(s) used in the experiment. These ambiguities hinder comparisons aimed at understanding the accuracy of different models and the coupled effects of potential numerical errors. Prior to understanding the impact of injector imperfections on their performance, it is first necessary to understand how models perform in a well-controlled environment with well-defined boundary conditions. Here, we focus on the latter while accurately matching the operating conditions used in the experiments. Relevant high-pressure phenomena are treated with real-fluid thermodynamics and transport for multicomponent mixtures. A highly resolved calculation is performed to study both scalar-mixing and initiation of combustion. Results are assembled into a database that can facilitate one-to-one comparisons between codes. The combined set of results is analyzed to provide physical insights related to localized broadband transient mixing and combustion processes that are typically not available from experiments.