Kumar, A., Ingram, K., Goyal, D., and Kamasamudram, K., "Impact of Carbonaceous Compounds Present in Real-World Diesel Exhaust on NOx Conversion over Vanadia-SCR Catalyst," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(3):1598-1603, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0921.
Exposure of hydrocarbons (HCs) and particulate matter (PM) under certain real-world operating conditions leads to carbonaceous deposit formation on V-SCR catalysts and causes reversible degradation of its NOx conversion. In addition, uncontrolled oxidation of such carbonaceous deposits can also cause the exotherm that can irreversibly degrade V-SCR catalyst performance. Therefore carbonaceous deposit mitigation strategies, based on their characterization, are needed to minimize their impact on performance. The nature and the amount of the deposits, formed upon exposure to real-world conditions, were primarily carried out by the controlled oxidation of the deposits to classify these carbonaceous deposits into three major classes of species: i) HCs, ii) coke, and iii) soot. The reversible NOx conversion degradation can be largely correlated to coke, a major constituent of the deposit, and to soot which causes face-plugging that leads to decreased catalyst accessibility. Accelerated procedures are developed to simulate the deposit formation under real-world and to develop mitigation strategies to limit their impact on NOx conversion and the risk of exotherm.