Wright, N., Osborne, D., and Music, N., "Comparison of Hydrocarbon Measurement with FTIR and FID in a Dual Fuel Locomotive Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0978, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0978.
Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR. Specifically, the FTIR avoids the increased error propagation of the difference method, has the ability to include formaldehyde which is not visible to the FID, and can provide more accurate molar masses to use when converting concentrations to masses.