Wang, X., Ge, Y., Zhang, C., Liu, J. et al., "Estimating Ozone Potential of Pipe-out Emissions from Euro-3 to Euro-5 Passenger Cars Fueled with Gasoline, Alcohol-Gasoline, Methanol and Compressed Natural Gas," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1009, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1009.
Along with the booming expansion of private car preservation, many Chinese cities are now struggling with hazy weather and ground-level ozone contamination. Although central government has stepped up efforts to purify skies above China, counter-strategies to curb ground-level ozone is comparatively weak. By using maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method, this paper estimated the ozone forming potential for twenty-five Euro-3 to Euro-5 passenger cars burning conventional gasoline, methanol-gasoline, ethanol-gasoline, neat methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). The results showed that, for all the fuel tested, VOC/NOx ratios and SR values decreased with the upgrading of emission standard. Except for Euro-3 M100 and Euro-4 M85, SR values for alternative fuel were to different degrees smaller than those for gasoline. When the emission standard was shifted from Euro-4 to Euro-5, OFP values estimated for gasoline vehicle decreased. For those Euro-4 and Euro-5 vehicles, compared to gasoline, alternative fuel including M15, E10, CNG and neat methanol showed moderate ozone-benefit. Along with the implementation of newer standards, OFP contribution from CO and aldehydes dropped while benzenes’ contribution increased.