Karim, A., Morelli, A., Miazgowicz, K., Lizotte, B. et al., "Effectiveness of Swirl-Vanes Upstream of Casing-Treatment at the Compressor Inlet in Automotive Turbochargers," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1022, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1022.
The use of Swirl-Vanes or Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) in gas engines is well-known and has demonstrated their ability to improve compressor surge margin at low flow rates. But, the use of swirl-vanes is not too common in large diesel engine turbo-chargers where compressor housing inlet has some form of Casing-Treatment (CT). Recently, Ford engineers tested swirl-vanes in a diesel engine turbocharger where the compressor inlet had a ported shroud casing-treatment and the experimental data showed no improvement in surge margin. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to investigate reasons why the surge margin did not improve after introducing swirl-vanes at the compressor inlet. The CFD results showed strong interactions between swirling flow at the compressor inlet and flow stream coming out of the compressor inlet casing-treatment. This special case shows that CFD is instrumental to engineer the compressor inlet flow geometry to achieve an ideal local compressor inlet flow incidence angle for the desired surge performance.