Balasubramanian, T., Kesavan, V., Lakshminarasimhan, V., Balla, V. et al., "Mechanical Noise Reduction of Valve Train System in Small SI Scooter Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1053, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1053.
This paper discusses various noise sources of cylinder head assembly and focuses on design options developed to reduce the cylinder head noise in a single cylinder, 110cc scooter engine. Various experimental procedures were used for identification and ranking of different noise sources. In case of air-cooled small engines, temperature effects are dominant and as a consequence certain noises stand out in hot condition causing severe noise discomfort. After identifying the reasons for abnormal cylinder head noise, countermeasure mechanisms for reducing unintended impacts of valve train/ rocker arm in the layout were developed. The side-effects due to introduction of these additional mechanisms are studied using performance metrics. It is essential to limit noise deterioration over time to increase customer satisfaction. Simulation cycles were developed to quantify the cylinder head noise deterioration using accelerated testing procedures. Targets have been revised based on engine noise deterioration study over many thousand kilometers. The proposed solutions were verified and found to be acceptable through NVH measurement and field trials.