Yoo, K., Hoard, J., Boehman, A., and Gegich, M., "Experimental Studies of EGR Cooler Fouling on a GDI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1090, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1090.
Cooled EGR provides benefits in better fuel economy and lower emissions by reducing knocking tendency and decreasing peak cylinder temperature in gasoline engines. However, GDI engines have high particle emissions due to limited mixing of fuel and air, and these particle emissions can be a major source of EGR cooler fouling. In order to improve our knowledge of GDI engine EGR cooler fouling, the effects of tube geometry and coolant temperature on EGR cooler performance and degradation were studied using a four cylinder 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine. In addition, deposit microstructure was analyzed to explore the nature of deposits formed under GDI engine operation. The results of this study showed that a dented tube geometry was more effective in cooling the exhaust gas than a smooth tube due to its large surface area and turbulent fluid motion. However, more deposits were accumulated and higher effectiveness loss was observed in the dented tube. Furthermore, the dented tube had a larger pressure drop across the EGR cooler. Microstructure analysis revealed that the deposit mass and thickness decrease with axial distance from the tube inlet due to variation of thermophoresis along the tube.