Zhang, Z., Jin, Z., and Wyatt, P., "Model-Based Evaluation of Chemistry Selection for Dual Energy Storages for 12V Advanced Start-Stop Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1209, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1209.
Passively parallelizing two energy storage systems, one is energy type and the other is power type, requires minimal modifications of auto makers and thus a cost-effective method to enable advanced start stop technology. Traditional lead acid battery, lithium-ion battery, capacitor, are all candidate chemistries for dual energy storage solutions. However due to the dual nature of the technology the open circuit potential, resistance, and some other control variables should match in order to achieve optimal performance. In this work we use coupled equivalent circuit model and electrochemical model to study a few options of dual systems, namely the lead acid with NMC/LTO, lead acid with LFP-Graphite, and lead acid with capacitor. A few charging and discharging pulses are designed and simulated to evaluate the regen receiving capability and cranking capability of different chemistries. Also a driving cycle is simulated for different battery combinations to characterize their fuel economy, heat generation, SOC range.