Liu, K., Xu, Z., Detwiler, D., and Tovar, A., "Optimal Design of Cellular Material Systems for Crashworthiness," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1396, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1396.
This work proposes a new method to design crashworthiness structures that made of functionally graded cellular (porous) material. The proposed method consists of three stages: The first stage is to generate a conceptual design using a topology optimization algorithm so that a variable density is distributed within the structure minimizing its compliance. The second stage is to cluster the variable density using a machine-learning algorithm to reduce the dimension of the design space. The third stage is to maximize structural crashworthiness indicators (e.g., internal energy absorption) and minimize mass using a metamodel-based multi-objective genetic algorithm. The final structure is synthesized by optimally selecting cellular material phases from a predefined material library. In this work, the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds are derived for the two-phase cellular material, and the structure performances are compared to the optimized structures derived by our proposed framework. In comparison to traditional structures that made of a single cellular phase, the results demonstrate the improved performance when multiple cellular phases are used.