Sherony, R., Tian, R., Chien, S., Fu, L. et al., "Pedestrian/Bicyclist Limb Motion Analysis from 110-Car TASI Video Data for Autonomous Emergency Braking Testing Surrogate Development," SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 4(1):113-120, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1456.
Many vehicles are currently equipped with active safety systems that can detect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists, to mitigate associated conflicts with vehicles. With the advancements in technologies and algorithms, detailed motions of these targets, especially the limb motions, are being considered for improving the efficiency and reliability of object detection. Thus, it becomes important to understand these limb motions to support the design and evaluation of many vehicular safety systems. However in current literature, there is no agreement being reached on whether or not and how often these limbs move, especially at the most critical moments for potential crashes. In this study, a total of 832 pedestrian walking or cyclist biking cases were randomly selected from one large-scale naturalistic driving database containing 480,000 video segments with a total size of 94TB, and then the 832 video clips were analyzed focusing on their limb motions. We modeled the pedestrian/bicyclist limb motions in four layers: (1) the percentages of pedestrians and bicyclists who have limb motions when crossing the road; (2) the averaged action frequency and the corresponding distributions on when there are limb motions; (3) comparisons of the limb motion behavior between crossing and non-crossing cases; and (4) the effects of seasons on the limb motions when the pedestrians/bicyclists are crossing the road. The results of this study can provide empirical foundations supporting surrogate development, benefit analysis, and standardized testing of vehicular pedestrian/bicyclist detection and crash mitigation systems.