Yamamoto, A., Tanaka, W., Makino, T., Tanaka, S. et al., "Study of Observer Considering Damper Force Dynamics for Semi Active Suspension Systems," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 9(2):529-534, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1553.
This paper reports that estimation accuracy of suspension stroke velocity is increased by considering the damping force delay characteristics to an observer. Thereby ride comfort is improved, using the simple and low-cost semi active suspension systems that use only three vertical acceleration sensors.