Banerjee, J. and McPhee, J., "Volumetric Tire Models for Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Simulations," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1565, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1565.
Dynamic modelling of the contact between the tires of automobiles and the road surface is crucial for accurate and effective vehicle dynamic simulation and the development of various driving controllers. Furthermore, an accurate prediction of the rolling resistance is needed for powertrain controllers and controllers designed to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Existing models of tires include physics-based analytical models, finite element based models, black box models, and data driven empirical models. The main issue with these approaches is that none of these models offer the balance between accuracy of simulation and computational cost that is required for the model-based development cycle. To address this issue, we present a volumetric approach to model the forces/moments between the tire and the road for vehicle dynamic simulations. In this article, the volumetric approach will be used to derive the expressions for the normal force acting on the tire and the rolling resistance associated with its motion. A tire drop test will be described which is used to identify the model parameters. The volumetric tire model will be compared to an existing commercial tire model to demonstrate its performance.