Krajnovic, S., Minelli, G., and Basara, B., "Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations of Flows Around Generic Vehicle at Yaw," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1586, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1586.
Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations (PANS) were made of flow around a generic vehicle influenced by side wind at four different yaw angles to investigate the prediction capabilities of PANS. Comparisons with results of LES show clear advantages of PANS in predicting pressure-induced separation resulting in the trailing vortices aligned with the direction of the flow. Poorer agreement was obtained in the near wake when the boundary layer separates at the end of the surface at the rear end. A possible explanation for the lack of accuracy at the rear end of the body was found in the formulation of the switching coefficient fk which produces too low values resulting in too low eddy viscosity in this region.