Howell, J. and Panigrahi, S., "Aerodynamic Side Forces on Passenger Cars at Yaw," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1620, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1620.
Side force has an influence on the behaviour of passenger cars in windy conditions. It increases approximately linearly with yaw angle over a significant range of yaw for almost all cars and the side force derivative, (the gradient of side force coefficient with yaw angle), is similar for vehicles of a given category and size. The shape factors and components which affect side force for different vehicle types are discussed. The dominant influence on side force, for most cars, however, is shown to be the vehicle height which is consistent with slender wing theory if the car and its mirror image are considered. This simple theory is shown to apply to 1-box and 2- box shapes, covering most MPVs, hatchbacks and SUVs, but does not adequately represent the side forces on notchback and fastback car shapes. Data from simple bodies is used to develop a modification to the basic theory, which is applied to these vehicle types.